The objective of this volume is to outline key factors that are influencing and influenced by the business environment in the MENA region and that are essential for achieving business excellence and competitiveness in the region. In doing so, a holistic approach is used to analyse and assess the performance of the different countries in the region against each other and the rest of the world using different  international indicators and measurements. This book represents the outcome of many comprehensive research programmes undertaken in different countries in the MENA region and other parts of the world since 2004. The different chapters in this volume cover a wide geographical spectrum and written by more than forty renowned international experts from all over the world. This book is intended as a first step in paving the way towards further reflection on the future position and role of the MENA region in the World. The six main sections of the book are: Strategic Co-operation and Integration (3 chapters) Competitiveness and Effectiveness (6 chapters) Technological Transformation (3 chapters) Finance and Banking (4 chapters) Organisation Behaviour and Culture (3 chapters) Entrepreneurship and Small Business (3 chapters)